Q; if you have a sound health to make up fasts from ramadan a later time but people still offer money to the poors as expiation instead of fasting... is it permissible to offer money despite having pending fasts from ramadan????
A; All-Praise is due to Allah,
Making up Fasts and compensating for them all depends on the circumstances, and they can be split up into a few categories-
1-The one that breaks their Fast during Ramadan due to excused legislative reasons such as Medical reasons due to illness or the weak such as the elderly or the pregnant woman or the menstruating woman. Also this comes under the category of the traveler whom has the right to break their Fast too. Allah mentions these people being excused and has prescribed upon them to compensate for those days by making them up later on, as He The All-Mighty said, (in a verse that has been translated close to the meaning); and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (2/185)
2-The one that has medical issues that may cause harm to themselves by Fasting, these as serious cases that might be life threatening (not just minor medical excuses that does not effect ones health if they Fast) and these issues must be confirmed by a medical practitioner then one must take this information and ask there local Imam to weather this is to be excused form the Sharia'. As for these people due to their illness as it seriousness they have been excused from Fasting and they must compensate by feeding a poor person for every day they miss of Fasting. Allah The-Exalted said, And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship] - a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day]. (2/184)
What is meant by feeding a poor person here is giving half a saa’ of the local staple food for each day; half a saa’ is equivalent to one and a half kilograms.
3-Making up missed Ramadaan fasts may be done at any time but the majority of scholars limited it to a specific time frame within which they must be made up, which is before the next Ramadaan begins, because of the words of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her): “I would owe missed Ramadaan fasts but I would not be able to make them up except in Sha’baan, because of my duties towards the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).” This is similar to prayer, which should not be delayed until the time for the next prayer comes.
According to the majority of scholars, it is not permissible to delay making up missed Ramadaan fasts until the next Ramadaan comes without an excuse, and that doing so incurs sin, because of this hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah. If a person delays that then he must offer the fidyah: feeding one poor person for each day, because of the report narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas, Ibn ‘Umar and Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with them) who said concerning the one who has to make up a missed fast but does not do so until the next Ramadaan comes: “He must make it up and feed one poor person for each day.” This fidyah is for delaying it. It is permissible to offer the food before making up the fast, at the same time, or afterwards. al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (28/76).
And Allah knows best...