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Friday, 2 September 2011

Tafsir Al-Ahzaab 33:4-5

Q; My question for clarification i want to know is the exact phrase in Qur'an or Hadith? when our beloved Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) adapted Syed ibn Harith as his son & wanted to change his name into Syed ibn Muhammad but he was not allowed by Angel Jibreel? pls put more details! Shukran Jazilan!

A; All-Praise is due to Allah,
Allah The-Exalted said, “nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons. That is but your saying with your mouths. But Allâh says the truth, and He guides to the (Right) Way. Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just with Allâh. But if you know not their father’s (names, call them) your brothers in Faith and Mawâlîkum (your freed slaves). And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake, except in regard to what your hearts deliberately intend. And Allâh is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [al-Ahzaab 33:4-5]

Ibn Kathir says in regards to this verse,
(nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons.) This was revealed concerning Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, the freed servant of the Prophet . The Prophet had adopted him before prophethood, and he was known as Zayd bin Muhammad. Allah wanted to put an end to this naming and attribution, as He said:

﴿وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَآءَكُمْ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ﴾

(nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons. ) This is similar to the Ayah later in this Surah:

﴿مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَآ أَحَدٍ مّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَـكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيماً ﴾

(Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last (end) of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.) (33:40). And Allah says here:

﴿ذَلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُم بِأَفْوَهِكُمْ﴾

(That is but your saying with your mouths.) meaning, `your adoption of him is just words, and it does not mean that he is really your son,' for he was created from the loins of another man, and a child cannot have two fathers just as a man cannot have two hearts in one body.

﴿وَاللَّهُ يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِى السَّبِيلَ﴾

(But Allah says the truth, and He guides to the way.) Sa`id bin Jubayr said:

﴿يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ﴾

(But Allah says the truth,) means, justice. Qatadah said:

﴿وَهُوَ يَهْدِى السَّبِيلَ﴾

(and He guides to the way) means, the straight path. Imam Ahmad said that Hasan told them that Zuhayr told them from Qabus, meaning Ibn Abi Zibyan, that his father told him: "I said to Ibn `Abbas, `Do you know the Ayah,

﴿مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِ﴾

(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body.) What does this mean' He said that the Messenger of Allah stood up one day to pray, and he trembled. The hypocrites who were praying with him said, `Do you not see that he has two hearts, one heart with you and another with them' Then Allah revealed the words:

﴿مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِ﴾

(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body.)'' This was also narrated by At-Tirmidhi, who said, "It is a Hasan Hadith''. It was also narrated by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim from the Hadith of Zuhayr.

﴿ادْعُوهُمْ لاًّبَآئِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّهِ﴾

(Call them (adopted sons) by their fathers, that is more just with Allah.) This is a command which abrogates the state of affairs that existed at the beginning of Islam, when it was permitted to call adopted sons after the man who adopted them. Then Allah commanded that they should be given back the names of their real fathers, and states that this was more fair and just. Al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on him) narrated that `Abdullah bin `Umar said: "Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, the freed servant of the Messenger of Allah , was always called Zayd bin Muhammad, until (the words of the) Qur'an were revealed:

﴿ادْعُوهُمْ لاًّبَآئِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّهِ﴾

(Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just with Allah.)'' This was also narrated by Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i. They used to deal with them as sons in every respect, including being alone with them as Mahrams and so on. (end of quote from Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
And Allah knows best...

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