Q; assalamalaikum brother i want to learn in islam how the timing of salat is deriived likes how we say that this is asr time or other & how it deffer in other masalik i hope u will help me learn authentic way massalam?
A; All-Praise is Due to Allah,
The times for Prayer in accordance to Sharriah are as follows:
The time of Žuhr (Noon) prayer begins when the sun starts its decline after its zenith in the sky until the shade of anything is equal to its length. The time of Asr (Afternoon) prayer begins from the time Žuhr ends until the shadow of an object is double its own length; this is what is preferred, but due to need it can be extended until the sun sets. The time of Maghrib (Sunset) prayer starts after the setting of the sun until the disappearance of redness or twilight of the sky. The time of Isha (Night) prayer is up until the middle of the night (Note that the middle of the night is not 12:00 a.m., but rather half the time between Maghrib and Fajr.)
and can continue up until the time of the dawn if necessary.The time of Fajr (Dawn) prayer begins at dawn(The first appearance of light in the sky.), until the sun rises.
These timings are mentioned by the Scholars of Fiqh in there books and evidently they have been derived from the Sunnah, Narrated / Authority Of: Ibn Abbas
reported that the Prophet (SAW) said, "Jibril led me in Salah twice near Bayt Allah. The first time, we offered the Salah of Zuhr when the shadow was like the thong of a shoe. Then, we offered Asr when the shadow of everything was equal to it, and maghrib after sunset when the fasting man takes if tar (breaks his fast), and Isha when the twilight disappeared, and fair when one who fasts is forbidden food and drink. The second time, we offerred Zuhr when the shadow of everything was like it in length at the time of Asr on the previous day. Then we offered the Asr when the shadow of everything was twice as long. We prayed Maghrib at the same time as the previous day; we prayed Isha when one-third of the night was over and Fajr when the earth was well-lit. Then Jibril turned to me and said; "0 Muhammad! This was the time observed by Prophets (SAW) before you, and the time (of five Salah) is between these two times."
[Ahmed 3081, Abu Dawud 393]
And Allah knows best...